Natural resources: management, use and conservation
Analysing complex social-ecological systems: A model of sustainability in community-based forest management
Authors: Ulrich Frey
Abstract: For many social-ecological systems it is still unclear why some groups thrive while others fail to achieve sustainable outcomes. It remains debated which factors improve ecological success and resilience. We find robust patterns of more than 20 factors related to success in a large number of case studies (irrigation, fisheries, forestry). We demonstrate that a new methodology – artificial neural networks (ANN) combined with large data sets are especially suited since they allow non-linear statistic modelling of complex systems. Here, we use the IFRI data set (community-based forestry) with around 400 codeable cases. The output of our model is the ecological success. The results show that ANNs are indeed capable of modelling the complexity of SES-systems. However, results on other data sets (irrigation and fishery) yield even more precise results than the models for forestry. Such an ANN-generated model might predict and optimize performance for communities world-wide facing SES-challenges.
Triggering Community Conservation Through the Trade of Carbon Offsets: The Case of the Ejido Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Mexico
Authors: Eduardo Garcia-Frapolli, Octavio Tolentino Arevalo
Abstract: Based on qualitative research and a case study analysis, this paper describes how a local conservation initiative grounded on the potential to trade carbon offsets in the voluntary market has triggered a multi-purpose scheme for community conservation in the ejido of Felipe Carrillo Puerto (FCP), Mexico. We describe how the FCP has engaged in the creation of two community-conserved areas, an ecotourism venture and two projects of payment for environmental services. We show how creating a portfolio of conservation projects has allowed the ejido to diversify their sources of income in addition to creating an important number of jobs related to conservation. We discuss the implications of the community experiences with different conservation schemes, the market-based instruments that can trigger community conservation and the importance of giving local communities the opportunity to define their own conservation paths.
A Critical Analysis of Individual Transferable Quotas as an Instrument for Fisheries Management: an Equity Perspective.
Authors: Ralf Doering, Leyre Goti, Katharina Jantzen, Lorena Fricke
Abstract: Fish stocks, as common pool resources, are increasingly managed by giving fishermen exclusive access rights as Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQ). ITQs have been widely discussed with a focus on social, economic and ecological issues. Although equity aspects are of great importance for ITQs, there is a very limited analysis about how to assess issues of equity and fair distribution when introducing them. This paper applies an existing framework for assessing equity in resource use systems to tradable quota systems in fisheries. It defines the perspectives of distributive fairness, the stakeholders who are bound by fair practice rules, and instruments of fairness, and identifies metrics to assess equity in practice. Moreover, it provides practical guidance for evaluating whether a given ITQ system operates under an equitable framework programme.
Hunting for stags: On some optimal incentive policies for the coordination of collective action and their empirical relevance
Authors:Hannu Autto, Christian Kimmich
Abstract: Ecological challenges often entail collective action problems. It is known that incentives matter for the likelihood of successful cooperation and that ecological problems are often characterized by the presence of multiple equilibria. We study the optimal incentive policy using stability set analysis of multiple equilibria collective action games with payoff heterogeneity. Stability set analysis offers an interesting possibility to draw comparative statics in multiple equilibria games by combining the payoff structure with players’ beliefs. Our initial results suggest that the optimal incentive scheme is a mixture of insurance policy and a selective incentive policy that favors players who have less incentive to coordinate on the Pareto-efficient outcome. We discuss our theoretical findings in light of common-pool resource cases.
Is the Arctic an Economic Time Bomb? Integrated Assessment Models Can Help Answer This Question
Authors: Jimena Alvarez, Dmitry Yumashev, Gail Whiteman, Jeremy Wilkinson, Chris Hope, Peter Wadhams
Abstract: In recent years the Arctic has been warming nearly twice as fast as the global average. Such change leads to various economic opportunities in the Arctic, but also negative impacts on the climate, ecosystems and communities in the region itself and also worldwide. It is therefore essential to accurately quantify the global costs associated with Arctic change. To do this properly we need to bring together up-to-date, transdisciplinary knowledge on both the climate and economic systems. We assess if and how leading Integrated Assessment Models, including PAGE09, can be used to compute the economic valuation of potential long-term global impacts of the changing Arctic.
ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SILTING-UP AND EROSION PROCESSES: HOW SPATIAL DYNAMIC MODELS COUPLED WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VALUATION MODELS CAN CONTRIBUTE TO SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES IN SUGARCANE FARMING
Authors: Rodrigo Macedo, Cláudia Almeida, João Santos, Bernardo Rudorff, Britaldo Soares Filho, Hermann Rodrigues, Wilson Sousa,
Abstract: This paper approaches the economic valuation of environmental impacts related to soil erosion and silting-up of water streams. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of silting-up mitigation to funding the environmental recovery of riparian areas found in sugarcane farms. Spatial dynamic models were conceived to simulate past land cover/land use changes (2005-2010) and future landscape scenarios (2010-2020) in the study area. Three sets of scenarios: i) stationary scenarios, in which the transition rates observed in former years were held constant (business as usual); ii) non- stationary scenarios with a partial recovery of environmentally protected areas along riversides (70% by 2015); iii) non-stationary scenarios with a full recovery (100% by 2015). The envisaged scenarios for environmental recovery can reduce environmental impacts up to 16% (US$41,479.29 to US$56,789.40) yearly. The silting mitigation would approximately contribute with US$13.83 to US$18.94 ha-1year-1.
EXPLORING PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION TOWARDS MARINE BIODIVERSITY IMPROVEMENT: THE CASE OF ROCKY HABITATS IN THE ADRIATIC SEA
Authors: Greti Lucaroni, Stefania Tonin
Abstract: Several study demonstrated that environmental governance of biodiversity is influenced by our perception. This study was conducted in the North Adriatic Sea characterized by rocky habitats in which there is high biodiversity richness. These areas are recently experiencing a loss of biodiversity. In particular, among the negative impact on the conservation of local biodiversity, there is the phenomenon known as Abandoned, Lost or Discarded Fishing ears. This contribution present the results of focus groups organized with local residents to understand people’s knowledge of these areas, and to investigate their perception regarding biodiversity and conservation policies. We found that most of the participants did not know these areas, and only few people had direct experienced with them. Almost all participants were surprised of the variety of species hosted, and they were even more surprised by the fact this big variety of biodiversity could be found in the Italian Adriatic Sea.
European approaches to resource management regimes and sustainable development in the Arctic –building a research network for Horizon 2020
Authors: Svein Erik Stave, Iulie Aslaksen, Per Arild Garnaasjordet
Abstract: The paper addresses the research issues and research challenges involved in building a network for a Horizon 2020 project proposal on European approaches to resource management regimes and sustainable development in the Arctic. The proposed project seeks to explore the variety of international interests and actors influencing natural resource management and development agendas in the arctic region, and the role of Europe and European countries in promoting EU’s values for global justice in the context of natural resources. The project will focus on values governing the exploitation of natural resources, including mining and petroleum, rights to land and resources, and management of renewable resources, as well as other aspects of economic development, including distribution of income, wealth and well-being among arctic nations and people. The paper also outlines establishment of a research network for the complex and interdisciplinary nature of the proposed project.
Balancing agricultural development and forest conservation in the Amazonia: Can ecosystem degradation be reversed?
Authors: Paloma Esteve, Irene Blanco-Gutiérrez, Consuelo Varela-Ortega, Marisol Toledo
Abstract: Agricultural expansion is one of the major drivers of deforestation in the Amazonia threatening the maintenance of critical ecosystems services. This paper explores the effectiveness of different policy measures (including economic (dis-)incentives and command-and-control measures) designed to preserve ecosystems at farm level in tropical agroforests of the Bolivian Amazon. For this, different farm types were identified, ranging from small subsistence to large-scale commercial holdings, trough fieldwork and cluster analysis. These farm types were subsequently specified using a multi-period bio-economic optimization model that permits simulation of different policy measures. Results indicate that if no action is taken, forest clearing for agriculture will continue, especially in large intensive farms that have access to commercial credit. Forest conservation policies can contribute to curb this trend, but they should be context specific. Only a combination of command-and-control with market-based measures will balance rural livelihoods and ecosystem conservation ensuring the protection of the Amazon forests.
Local environmental NGO roles in the biodiversity governance: Czech-German comparison
Authors: Lenka Slavikova
Abstract: The purpose of the presented research is to find out under what circumstances local environmental NGOs can serve as an effective complement to the state biodiversity protection within a certain territory. The continuous evolution of the NGO sector and its ability to effectively replace government agency services seems to be one of the recent transformation waves in the environmental governance. The large difference in this evolution can be detected among particular countries. Within our research we have focused on the biodiversity management practices in the cross-border Czech-German mountain region to reveal what factors determine the impact of NGOs and what strategies help them to pursue their agenda in the long-term. We have undertaken four in-depth case-studies (2 on the Czech side and 2 on the German side) following the outline of the IAD Framework to reach better compatibility.
The Relevance of Governance Quality for Sustainable Resource Use. A Case Study of Greece
Authors: Julia Kolar
Abstract: I investigate the relationship between governance quality and sustainable resource use. Natural resources are central to socio-economic development. Europe furthermore is highly dependent on resource imports and aims for organising resource use more efficiently. Increasing resource productivity is a necessary precondition on the way to a resource efficient Europe. Resource use as well as resource productivity are influenced by several socio-economic dimensions, such as economic development or standard of living. Empirical findings about resource productivity and governance quality in Greece raise the question if quality of political systems might be another influencing factor. By conducting a regression analysis including EU28 countries, I found that governance quality and resource productivity correlate significantly. I also discovered that increasing governance quality entails higher resource productivity levels. My work provides a first investigation of the complex relationship and interaction of governance quality, economic development and resource use.
The evolution of institutions for non-wood forest products: an empirical study of harvesting practices across Europe Empty promises or promising futures? A critical assessment of the role of smart grids in the transition towards renewable energies.
Authors: Zora Kovacic
Abstract: The scarcity of non-renewable energy sources and the increasing concerns with global warming and CO2 emissions derived from the burning of fossil fuels have brought renewable energies under the spotlight. This paper offers a critical assessment of the viability and feasibility of a transition towards renewable energies, and of the potential contribution of smart grids to this transition. The research is based on empirical evidence from the European context. The assessment is based on a comparison between (a) the viability of a transition to renewable energies, based on the internal requirements of the societies under analysis in terms of energy consumption and societal metabolism, and (b) the feasibility of the aforementioned transition, based on an external view of the economic process in relation to the availability of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Smart grids offer a relevant case study to assess the potential of technological innovations in the envisioned transition.
Probabilistic CO2 emission scenarios under fossil energy resource depletion
Authors: Iñigo Capellan Perez, Iñaki Arto, Josué Polanco-martínez, Mikel González-eguino, Marc Neumann
Economy-Wide Rebound Effects from Increased Energy Efficiency in Scottish Households
Authors: Gioele Figus, Patrizio Lecca, Karen Turner
Abstract: This paper investigates the economy-wide impacts of a 5% improvement in Scottish household energy efficiency, focussing specifically on total energy rebound effects, both in household energy use and in total energy use across the Scottish economy. The impacts are measured through simulations using an inter-temporal dynamic single region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The key finding is that the economy-wide impacts of an improvement in energy efficiency in the household sector are qualitatively different to what has been found in CGE studies that focus on increased efficiency in industrial energy use, which leads to productivity-led growth. Here, we find that economic expansion resulting from increased household energy efficiency is driven by growth in domestic demand, which will crowd out export demands unless the reduced cost of living is reflected in the wage demands made by households in supplying labour services to the production side of the economy.
A Participatory Multi-Criteria Decision Assessment of the use of Biofuels in the Canary Islands: the case of Fuerteventura
Authors: David Legna-de la Nuez, Serafin Corral, David Romero
Abstract: This paper discusses different alternatives of biofuels implementation from an integrated point of view, carrying out a Multi-Criteria Assessment as well as a Participatory Process providing. This approach provides not only feedback, but also facilitate the development of an assessment together with the local population in order to develop a better land-use management strategy together with a possible sustainable economic activity for the local population. The main findings of this analysis are based on an interdisciplinary research project carried out by the University of La Laguna assessing the agricultural and chemical feasibility, as well as the socio-economic implications of the implementation of the jatropha crop as a source of biofuel in the Island of Fuerteventura,
Public acceptance of hydropower production in Switzerland
Authors: Andrea Tabi, Rolf Wüstenhagen
Abstract: Although huge public acceptance can be observed for renewable energy technologies but when it comes to implementation, public concern has been increasing. The same case can be experienced in recent hydropower expansion efforts in Switzerland as well. To investigate the reasons behind the resistance we conducted a nationwide representative survey with a choice experiment on hydropower acceptance. Results show that having small ecological impacts on aquatic ecosystem would be a prerequisite for any further expansion. The conflicting policy goals, namely increasing hydropower production and preserving rivers, seem to reflect back in public perceptions.
What do we know about WFD implementation in Europe? A Meta-Analysis of 92 Journal Articles
Authors: Blandine Boeuf, Oliver Fritsch
Abstract: Introducing institutional novelties such as river basin management, participation and economic analysis as well as demanding water quality targets, the Water Framework Directive is arguably the most ambitious piece of EU legislation in the field of water. However, although we know a lot about WFD implementation, this knowledge relies on a host of single case studies and small-n comparative work, often within one country. There is a striking lack of integration across countries and time, disciplines and approaches. We carry out a meta-analysis of 92 scholarly articles to map systematically empirical research done in the past 15 years. To this end, we consider more than 30 aspects, including research priorities and questions explored, methods and research design chosen, concepts and theories used, countries and time periods studied, and future research agendas identified. We conclude by providing an in-depth discussion of research studying the role of economics in WFD implementation.
An Operational Framework for Sustainability Assessment for Integrated Coastal Zone Management: An Application of Sato-umi and Ecosystem Services Science
Authors: Takuro Uehara, Jia Niu, Xiaochen Chen, Takahiro Ota
Abstract: This study proposes a novel operational sustainable assessment framework for integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) at a regional scale by applying it to Seto inland sea, Japan. Although the sustainability concept has been ubiquitous and applied over the past few decades, its operational usefulness has not been always clear. In other words, some sustainability assessments may not provide decision makers with practical information about what to do with the assessment. The framework draws upon three rather separately developed concepts: the Inclusive Wealth (IW) as a technical framework for sustainability indicators, Satoumi (Japanese traditional multifaceted concept of coastal zones) and ecosystem service science. The three concepts complement each other to corroborate the assessment framework. Although Satoumi is traditional knowledge local to Japan, we believe that its application is instructive for other areas since similar concepts can be found and utilized for their conducting sustainability assessment for ICZM.
Institutions, government and extreme environmental events: comparison between actions taken to face drought in California (USA) and São Paulo (Brazil)
Authors: Bruno Peregrina Puga, Osvaldo Aly, Bruno Pirilo Conicelli, Reginaldo Bertolo
Abstract: The year 2014 has exacerbated several problems relating to global warming phenomena. More sensitive to such changes, the hydrological cycle in some regions of the world has been affected more intensely. The abnormal period of drought and its intensity required from governments at different levels mitigation and prevention actions against these effects. This paper analyzes, under an institutional perspective, the roles of two state governments to face such crisis in California (USA) and Sao Paulo (Brazil). The comparison between the actions taken (and also those that were not) allows us to reflect on the degree of maturation of environmental policy in the wider policy of these different places.
Assembling water efficiency: the role of water resource management in bringing about sustainable domestic consumption in England and Wales
Authors: Claire Hoolohan
Abstract: In recent years the water industry has undergone rapid transformation from state-led development of supplies for an industrialising economy to a market driven industry prioritising efficiency to ensure that provision remains economically, socially and environmentally viable. Through policy analysis and interviews this research explores the water efficiency agenda using an assemblage approach. The aims of this research are three fold; 1) to explore the social, technological and natural relations through which water efficiency is produced and is productive 2) to evaluate the water efficiency agendas capacity to deliver long term sustainability 3) to understand how the water resource management agenda evolves through public participation, collaboration and extreme events. By developing a novel approach for analysis and evaluation this research makes contributions for both academia and policy making, offering a critique that is sensitive to gradual evolution of policy and management and insights as to how this may be strengthened.
Augmenting the conventional input-output framework to consider water as a ‘common pool’ resource
Authors: Oluwafisayo Alabi, Karen Turner, Kim Swales, Max Munday
Abstract: This paper develops and applies an innovative method around regional input-output (IO) tables that facilitates better understanding of connections between scarce domestic water resources, complex industry supply chains, tightening regulatory constraints and regional economic growth. Specifically, we extend on the conventional demand-driven IO model to develop a framework where the full resource costs of water use and the impacts of regulatory constraints may be examined. This step is necessary where market failure causes a deviation between actual expenditures on the outputs of the water supply sector and actual water resource use by each production sector and final consumer. We then use output and price multipliers derived from the adjusted and unadjusted IO accounts to consider how capturing the full resource implications of water use in supply chains impacts through both up and down-stream regional supply chains. We also conduct scenario simulations regarding the impacts of potential constraints on water supply.
Understanding forest clearing and conservation policy in Madagascar: the case of the Makira Natural Park
Authors: Tendro Tondrasoa
Abstract: This research explores the current status of Makira Natural Park, and analyzes the relationship between land uses to a community management strategy. We examined how forest management contracts were set up and administered, and then assessed the efficacy of these contracts with respect to institutional effectiveness and reduction of deforestation, the key driver of biodiversity endangerment in Madagascar. The approach taken in this research is a combination of semi-structured interviews, group interviews, participant observations, and land use mapping. We first present a qualitative narrative of the processes of establishing forest management transfer. Second, we evaluate the forest management contracts in Makira Protected Area relative to Ostrom (1990) framework for management of common property resources. Third, we present data from household surveys showing the prevalence of deforestation in forest management contract areas.
Land tenure and agricultural expansion in Latin America: the role of Indigenous Peoples’ and local communities’ forest rights
Authors: Michele Graziano Ceddia, Ulrich Gunter, Alexandre Corriveau-bourque
Abstract: Agricultural expansion remains the most important proximate cause of tropical deforestation. Projected population increases could further raise the pressure on the remaining forests, unless agricultural intensification allows raising agricultural output without expanding agricultural areas. The purpose of this article is to understand the role of institutional factors in governing the intensification process towards the goal of preserving forests from agricultural pressures, with a focus on Indigenous Peoples’ and local communities’ rights to forests (as embedded in the various tenure regimes). This aspect has been investigated mainly at the national or regional level. In this paper we complement the existing literature by adopting an international dimension and analyse the process of agricultural expansion across eleven Latin American countries over the period 1990-2010 to assess whether, in a context of agricultural intensification, different land tenure regimes impact differently on the realization of land-sparing or Jevons paradox.
Analysis of current patterns of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean
Authors: Consuelo Varela-Ortega, Laura Barrios, Paloma Esteve, Rhys Manners, Irene Blanco-Gutiérrez
Abstract: Forest protection is crucial for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Deforestation is importantly contributing to current GHG emissions, especially in Latin America, and is significantly reducing the Earth’s carbon sequestration potential. The aim of this paper is to identify the factors that determine deforestation in Latin American and Caribbean countries and to characterize different deforestation patterns in this region. For this, we applied statistical and econometric analysis using a database developed for 27 Latin American and Caribbean countries for the period 2000-2010. Cluster analysis showed different groups of countries with respect to the risk of deforestation. Econometric modeling underlined social and demographic issues and the role of corruption as drivers of deforestation. Results highlight the need to develop forest protection policies that account for the different national contexts, and that consider the relevance of institutional and social mechanisms for sustainable socio-economic development and for the effective implementation of current policies.
Swinging livelihoods, heterogeneous attitudes, and incentives to adopt silvopasture in the tropical forest frontier
Authors: Aiora Zabala, Unai Pascual, Luis Garcia-barrios
Abstract: In the frontier of biodiversity-rich tropical forests, land-use practices have an important impact in the buffering role of the ecosystem. We address the decision-making processes of smallholders and their motivations to participate in voluntary programs for sustainable land-use. We develop a theoretical framework on adoption of silvopasture that embeds rural household decisions within a complex system of historical pathways, where diversifying subsidies and macroeconomic changes make livelihoods fluctuate, mediated by individual attitudes. We analyse and model participation and short-term adoption in a pilot project for planting fodder trees in the border of a protected tropical forest in Chiapas, Mexico. We focus on livelihood strategies and subjective attitudes as the explanatory variables, using primary quantitative and Q methodology data. Our in-depth case-study provides evidence about the type of incentives that are adequate to encourage long-term adoption of sustainable practices, suggesting that monetary payments may not be most adequate for pioneer adopters.
Transformational change, REDD+ and synergies between climate change mitigation and adaptation
Analyzing REDD+ as “a pilot” of transformative climate governance
Authors: Kaisa Korhonen-Kurki, Maria Brockhaus
Abstract: This paper will analyze REDD+ as “a pilot” of transformative climate governance. The study is a part of Global Comparative Study in REDD+, underway in 13 REDD+ countries, from where the empirical evidence is drawn. We ask what kind of policy innovations REDD+ has induced in domestic policy arenas, and what is the transformative power of these innovations? We draw loosely from transition theory to better understand the possibilities and barriers of REDD+ for transformative shift in climate governance. Preliminary results indicate that there are several policy innovations indicating transformative potential of REDD+ and it seems that REDD has a potential to be a catalyst for a transformational change. However, the slow progress in REDD+, indicates strong resistance to move away from business as usual practices.
Multi-level governance and synergies between forest related climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in Indonesia
Authors: Monica Di Gregorio, Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat, Intan Maya Sari, Sonya Dyah Kusuma Dewi
Abstract:This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation policies related to forests in Indonesia, and the structural and political challenges and opportunities associated with fostering integration in national policy processes across scales. It tests a number of theoretical arguments in support of such policy integration against evidence from multi-level policy processes in Indonesia.
Mitigation and adaptation perspectives in sustainable land reform settlements in the North-west of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Authors: Peter May, Robert Davenport, Paulo Nunes
Abstract: Agrarian reform beneficiaries at the tropical forest fringe in the Brazilian Amazon are vulnerable to both environmental and economic stresses that have led them to unsustainable land uses. Environmental stresses have arisen from unusually dry conditions in the Amazon region that may presage global climate change. Price instability and infrastructure deterioration threaten the viablity of commodity production, while pasture conversion of native forests and livestock production emerge as the next best option to survive at the frontier. Our study shows how settlers have resisted pressures toward destructive land use by registering collective property rights over common forestlands to comply with environmental legislation, while at the same time managing these forests for non-timber products. Channeled toward more remunerative markets and institutional uses in regional school lunch programs with government regulated minimum pricing has brought the value of Brazil nuts and other forest products and services higher, providing greater returns to farmers.
Is Carbon gender neutral? Adaptation mitigation gendered linkages in the dry forest context of Burkina Faso
Authors: Houria Djoudi
Abstract: Climate change and variability appears most likely to negatively affect poor people, particularly women. Tendencies to widen existing gender inequalities as well as divergences in the adaptive strategies of men and women have been observed. Hence, without taking into account underlying issues of vulnerability mitigation interventions based on management and use of natural resources, can oversee and even amplifies the root causes of vulnerability. This paper aims to better explore the gendered trade-offs and synergies between adaptation needs and mitigation efforts. Using quantitative and qualitative approaches including participatory focus group discussions, household surveys and carbon stock assessment of the most common land uses, we analyse the synergies between adaptation and mitigation in two geographical zones of Burkina Faso. The results show that compared to land uses with formal restricted access, community forestry and well managed Shea butter parkland show promising mitigation and adaptation gender outcomes.