New approaches to valuing ecosystem services: what can socio-cultural and deliberative methods offer?
Exploring practical methods of socio-cultural valuation of ecosystem services to support planning policy
Authors: Craig Bullock, Deirdre Joyce, Marcus Collier
Abstract: The concept of ecosystem services provides a means to articulate our dependence on the natural environment. Evidence of the importance of regulating, provisioning and cultural services can be demonstrated through a valuation of the benefits they provide to human beings. Hitherto, much of this valuation has been performed through economic approaches. However, our interaction with the natural environment provides a far wider range of benefits than personal utility alone.
This paper will discuss the merits of alternative socio-cultural valuation using the example of a coastal environment in Ireland. Here, we are using deliberative approaches and mapping within a series of workshops. The objective is to explore the range of socio-cultural values and to combine these with economic methods such that public authorities have the confidence to incorporate these values within spatial planning decisions with regard to green infrastructure and mapping the limits to acceptable development.
Stakeholders’ views on ecosystem services use, social values and participation: Q-sort methodology applied in Wielkopolska Province, Poland.
Authors: Piotr Matczak, Krzysztof Maczka
Abstract: Conflicts related to the ecosystem services management, within Natura 2000 network in particular, are abundant. Establishment of Natura 2000 network in Poland involved significant controversies and the further implementation has been contested. In this paper the question is posed: to what extent the strained relations between the public administration and the environmental NGOs in the management of Natura 2000 sites in Poland can be attributed to the difference between the parties in terms of: the understanding of ecosystem services use (views on nature and the role of man); the difference in social values (world views); difference in attitudes towards participation (views on a fair decision making process).
The q-sort research tool comprised 60 statements, used in 30 interviews with the public administration and environmental NGOs representatives enabled to detect the views differences between the parties and to recommend possible ways to overcome this gap.
Social valuation of ecosystem services in an agricultural landscape: Empirical findings
Authors: Rolinde Demeyer, Francis Turkelboom
Abstract: The objective of our research was to identify and understand the desired benefits and uses of an agricultural landscape in Belgium for different stakeholder groups. This research was in response to a question of the Flemish Land Agency (VLM) who wants to find ways to raise local support for the implementation of new nature in an agricultural landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) was considered a useful way to frame the human needs of the landscape. To elucidate local needs, a social valuation was used, which included an open interview, an ES photo ranking exercise and a mapping of desired ES. This resulted in an identification of a group of desired ES which were mentioned spontaneously by respondents, and a ranking of desired ES which were triggered by the pictures. These results proved to be very useful for the managers of the land use planning project.
The potentials and limitations of deliberative methods in ecosystem service valuation
Authors: Eszter Kelemen, Heli Saarikoski
Abstract: Deliberative valuation invites stakeholders and citizens (the general public) to form their preferences for ecosystem services together through an open dialogue, which allows consideration of ethical beliefs, moral commitments and social norms beyond individual and collective utility. The aim of this paper is to review the promises of deliberative valuation with a critical eye. Based on a detailed literature review and our previous research experiences with deliberative valuation, we assess how the key assumptions of deliberative valuation are reflected in empirical studies and what challenges are faced. We suggest that different tools should be used at different steps of the deliberative valuation process (i.e. problem framing, knowledge co-generation, decision making), and that the used approach has to be flexibly adapted to the decision making context as well as to the broader socio-cultural environment.
The impact of group dynamics on the outcome of deliberative monetary valuation studies of ecosystem services
Authors: Marc Völker, Nele Lienhoop
Abstract: Deliberative monetary valuation (DMV) studies of ecosystem services promise to give respondents the opportunity to exchange opinions and knowledge before making value statements. However, under certain conditions, group dynamics may prevent small groups from effectively pooling the individual knowledge of their members. This article empirically addresses one specific aspect of group dynamics that may impact on the sharing of information among participants: the initial preference distribution in groups. Drawing on a DMV study of forest ecosystem services in West Saxony, Germany, it is shown that the initial preference distribution in groups influences both the diversity of arguments exchanged during group discussions and the content and construct validity of value statements. This suggests that future DMV studies should be conducted with groups with heterogeneous initial preferences as a failure to do so may lead to an ineffective sharing of information, ill-advised value statements and, hence, biased valuation outcomes.
Interrelations between societal, cultural, and economic and political values
Towards a post growth concept of sustainable lifestyles: a plural, inclusive and ecologically responsible approach
Authors: Amanda Winter
Abstract: I develop a post economic growth critique of green urbanism with a focus on the meaning and function of sustainable lifestyles at the local institutional level, rather than evaluating individual practices and values. With an ethnographic study of Copenhagen (Denmark), given its ‘carbon neutral capital’ goal, my thematic analysis indicates that sustainable lifestyles are often thought of as privileged class consumption, a dominant narrative by which urban policy makers (re)affirm their insistence on ‘energy-efficient lifestyles.’ By targeting the middle class, the wealthiest go unquestioned and those living in poverty are excluded. These green visions lack community relations or challenges to consumerism and the pro-growth economy. Promoting sustainable lifestyles often represents a ‘strong sustainability’ stance where a system change is needed, thus making it a promising tool for post economic growth thinking; however my findings raise a concern and will be of use for researchers, community activists and policy makers.
Social Norms in Rural Development Policy: A Framed Field Experiment with the Punan Tubu of Kalimantan, Indonesia
Authors: Tezza Napitupulu, Victoria Reyes-garcía, Jetské Bouma
Abstract: We aim to understand the relation of social norms in a small scale society with Indonesia’s current rural development policy in a dynamic political setting. We conducted a framed experimental game with an indigenous community in East Kalimantan to assess individual’s decision in sharing the benefits of a government program vary according to the following characteristics of the individual: a) exposure to the national system and b) trust. We game was framed on a rural development government policy, aiming to empower villages to decide on their development pathway. The game was played with 212 adults sample from 5 villages upstream and 2 resettlements located near the city. Our preliminary result suggests that adults characterized with less exposure to the national system are less cooperative. We also find differences in adults’ decision in relation to their trust with fellow villagers and also trust to the government.
DEMOCRACY, DAMS & RESISTANCE: A CASE FOR DELIBERATIVE DEVELOPMENT DISCOURSE IN INDIA
Authors: Saraswathi Unni
Abstract: India, which counts among the major dam-building countries in the world, stands out as an archetypal case study of the damage unleashed by dams and irrigation canals designed in disharmony with the environment. This paper seeks to outline how some of the initiatives of Government of India have met with resistance. It outlines major protest movements across the country against privatization, large hydroelectric projects and nuclear power plants. Major contentious issues such as the impact on environment, displacement, compensation and incomplete rehabilitation are dealt with. It also examines the impact of popular resistance on public policy making, thus bringing the “stakeholders” to the centre stage of the development discourse. This paper ultimately reinforces the notion that democracy needs to be seen as much more than an ideal.
Social network analysis of alternative local food systems in Belgium
Authors: Pepijn De Snijder, Hélène Joachain, Thomas Bleeckx, Tessa Avermaete, Jose Luis Vivero Pol, Marek Hudon, Olivier De Schutter, Tom Dedeurwaerdere
Abstract: What is the role of social learning inside local food networks aiming at a transition to a sustainable food system? In the project Food4Sustainability a research consortium sets out to investigate the network characteristics and learning processes occurring in these local food networks in Belgium. A conceptual framework was developed reflecting the transdisciplinarity of the consortium and aimed at analysing the different levels of the network. The hypothesis in the first part of the project is the importance of the contribution of converging strategic policy beliefs to a collaborative atmosphere amongst the different actors in the local food network. This was assessed by a social network analysis through a series of semi-structured interviews with key players in the local food network.
Water Values in the Cuiabá River Basin and in the Brazilian Pantanal
Authors: Christopher Schulz
Abstract: The Cuiabá River Basin is located in the geographical centre of South America. It is almost entirely situated in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, which is well-known for its rapidly expanding agribusiness sector, as well as for hosting the Pantanal, the world’s largest continental freshwater wetland. The paper to be presented explores multiple dimensions of water values in the Cuiabá River Basin and in the Pantanal, with a special focus on non-monetary values. It is based on qualitative interviews with representatives of different stakeholder groups and connects water values with concrete issues of water governance, such as water supply and sanitation, water charges, fishing and tourism, as well as the conservation of the Pantanal’s biodiversity. Following a wide theoretical conception of value, the research not only presents specific values assigned to water, but shows how different high-level values shape the perception of water governance issues within different stakeholder groups.
Institutional change and continuity in an Andean peasant community facing multiple climatic and economic pressures
Authors: Giuseppe Feola
Abstract: In the Colombian Andes, farming communities have co-evolved with their environment for centuries. However, it is uncertain whether traditional institutional and cultural systems are adapting to current unprecedented economic (e.g. modernization and liberalization) and climatic pressures. This study investigated institutional adaptation and the social mechanisms of institutional change or continuity in a smallholding peasant community. The study adopted evolutionary theories of institutional change, and a qualitative approach that included data collected through a focus group, oral histories, key informant interviews and observations. The informal institutions that appear to be changing are reciprocal work exchange and gender-based roles in the household, both due to economic pressures. Most informal institutions, however, persist due to three mechanisms: selective out-migration, inter-generational transmission, and practices of everyday resistance. Peasant informal institutions and cultural models represent a ‘social attractor’ that controls change and determine a form of endogenous lock-in into a limited range of possible futures.
Shift towards environment: determinants of political platforms greening-up since 1970
Authors: Benjamin Michallet, Giuseppe Lucio Gaeta, François Facchini
Abstract: Why do parties offer environmental policies in their political programs? While there are numerous papers that examine the determinants of citizens’ pro-environmental behaviour, we know little about the extent to which political parties adjust their platform towards environmentalism. We argue that political parties listen to voters by emphasizing environmental policy issues in their election manifestos. We investigate this process through the Manifesto Project Dataset (CMP) on the period 1970-2012 for 20 European countries. Following the literature on public concern towards environment, we examine economical, environmental and political determinants. Our findings provide evidence of the prevalence of affluence conditions and political determinants in explaining platforms’ adjustment towards environment over time.
Democracy and Sustainability - what is their connection?
Authors: Ines Cosme, Rui Santos
Abstract: Environmental degradation is a growing societal concern. While there are many drivers of environmental sustainability, political factors are gaining more attention, particularly since the 1987 United Nations agreement on pursuing a sustainable development. We have performed a theoretical review of the linkage between sustainability and democracy and a comparative analysis of empirical studies on the topic. We conclude that theoretical discussions on the subject point that sustainability and democracy are naturally linked in many ways, while empirical studies have been struggling to find this connection. The main weaknesses of these studies are their lack of structure and the divergences in what democracy and sustainability mean and how can they be measured and correlated. In spite of this, the majority of empirical studies point to a positive correlation of democracy and environmental protection, while nations going through democratization processes usually perform worse, even than autocracies.
Integrating ecosystem service assessments and valuation: mixed methods or mixed messages?
Authors: Caroline Hattam, Jonathan P. Atkins, Anne Böhnke-Henrichs, Tobias Börger, Daryl Burdon, Alyne Delaney, Maria Hadjimichael, Melanie C. Austen
Abstract: A mixed-method approach was used to assess and value the ecosystem services derived from the Dogger Bank, a shallow sandbank in the North Sea. Three different methods were applied: a biological assessment, a choice experiment and a deliberative valuation exercise. Each of these studies was designed to answer different and specific research questions and therefore contributes different insights into the ecosystem services provided by the Dogger Bank and how they are valued by society. This paper explores what can be gained by bringing these findings together and the extent to which the different methods are complementary and can offset each other’s weaknesses. Findings suggest that mixed-methods research brings more understanding than can be gained from the individual approaches alone. Nevertheless, method choice and implementation strongly influences the level of complementarity found.
Approaching Irregular Forest Activities (IFA) as a Matter of Environmental Governance: Exploring Relevant Theoretical and Analytical Frameworks
Authors: Sabaheta Ramcilovik-Suominen, Graham Epstein, Bas Arts
Abstract: The key objective of my research is to investigate the most prominent existing and emerging governance institutions (e.g. statutory laws and co-existing traditional rules and norms) affecting land and forest use and how irregular forest activities (IFA) relate to them. This is observed in the context of the “EU Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade” (FLEGT) and “Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation” (REDD+) processes, in Savannakhet and Khammoune provinces of Laos. The main question is: How institutions and institutional actors emerge and render legitimacy and how IFA influence these institutional processes at different levels of governance? Theoretically the research builds on institutional theory and the theory of decentralisation in forest management. The study will advance those theoretical frameworks, by clarifying the role of informal institutions on institutional change, on the one hand and on the process of decentralisation, on the other
Cultural ecosystem services: Frontiers in theory and practice
Cultural ecosystem services: from non-materalities to relationalities
Authors: Rob Fish
Abstract: The construction of culture as a class of ecosystem service presents an interesting test of the ambitions of an ecosystems approach to decision making. This paper explores the theoretical conundrums arising from efforts to understand ecosystems as objects of cultural concern and considers the operational complexities associated with understanding how, and with what consequences, knowledge about cultural ecosystem services are created, communicated and accounted for in real world decision making. The paper specifically forwards and develops a conceptual framework for understanding cultural ecosystem services in terms of the environmental spaces and cultural practices that arise from interactions between humans and ecosystems. The types of knowledge, and approaches to knowledge production, presumed by this relational, non-linear and place-based perspective on cultural ecosystem services are discussed and reviewed.
Cultural Ecosystem Services and Sense of Place: a Process Driven Relational Perspective
Authors: Tim Acott, Julie Urquhart
Abstract: Marine ecology, through the process of marine fishing, drives a series of terrestrial relationships that are woven into material and phenomenological worlds. Using sense of place and cultural ecosystem services we explore how fishing practice is enrolled into community relationships and discuss how emergent cultural values contribute to developing narratives about sustainable communities. Drawing on insights from Actor Network Theory and non-representational theory marine fishing activity can be seen to drive a series of translations through which cultural value and ecosystem benefits emerge. This has applied implications for fisheries management by making visible relations that might otherwise be hidden in studies that focus on ecological and economic dimensions of fisheries management. Conceptual perspectives are reported in the context of empirical work carried out on inshore fishing as part of two INTERREG IVA funded projects, CHARM III and GIFS.
Shared or individual values of ecosystem services, or both? Pluralistic scenario valuation for value pluralism
Authors: Lina Isacs
Abstract: This paper proposes a research method that aims to bridge the gap between consistency and standardisation demanded by decision-making and the need to account for value pluralism and inter-subjectivity in ecosystem assessment. In a marine case study in Sweden, use values and non-use values will be systematically explored using both ‘conventional’ non-market valuation and deliberative group-based approaches to elicit monetary and non-monetary estimates of ecosystem services. An innovation is the employment of two different scenario techniques where changes due to external pressure and policy measures occur at different time horizons and different levels of uncertainty. Assessing different contexts and methodological settings with respect to individual and shared values, we hope to further the development of a pluralistic valuation framework, potentially encompassing social norms and narrative based values and ethics, beside the conventional utilitarian framework.
How do natural environment agencies take account of CES: approaches and challenges?
Authors: Liz O’Brien, Sue Williams, Alison Darlow
Abstract: Natural environment agencies are considering how to take account of cultural ecosystem services by either incorporating and translating them into their existing management and planning processes or by developing and testing new methods based on an ecosystem approach. We explore the approaches being taken by Natural England, Natural Resources Wales and the Forestry Commission. We identify some of the challenges these organisations face and lessons learnt from Natural England’s upland ecosystem pilot projects, Forestry Commission England’s participation in Landscape Partnership Schemes and Natural Resources Wales development and testing of an ecosystem approach.
Multiple identities in cultural ecosystem services
Authors: Katherine Irvine, Anke Fischer, Anja Byg
Abstract: ‘Identity’ is frequently mentioned in connection with cultural ecosystem services. However, the term seems to be used to cover a variety of things. Here we begin to unpack the notion of identity and how different aspects of identities come into play in interactions between humans and ecosystems and places. Based on empirical studies we distinguish between three different aspects of ‘identities’ and the ways in which they connect people and ecosystems. These include: (a) the identities attributed by people to a place or ecosystem, (b) the ways in which people’s identities shape their interactions with ecosystems, and thus the co-production of ecosystem services and (c) the ways in which these interactions (and thus, ecosystem services) shape people’s identities. A more careful differentiation between these aspects of identities may lead to a better understanding of cultural ecosystem services.
How can the Cultural Ecosystem Services of a Caledonian Forest be Realised?
Authors: Tim Collins, Reiko Goto, David Edwards
Abstract: The Black Wood of Rannoch is one of the largest remnants of ancient Caledonian pine forest in Scotland. It is culturally important as a setting for a sense of identity and belonging, aesthetic and spiritual experience, and cultural heritage. Despite this, the values that inform its management are almost exclusively those associated with biodiversity. This focus downplays the significance of its cultural benefits, and constrains their expression to those realised by a strict policy of conservation. We report on a series of recent workshops, discussions, events and residencies to rethink existing narratives of the value and management of the Black Wood and the Caledonian forest more broadly. We present an indicative assessment of possible ecological and cultural impacts of future management scenarios, and explore how such an analysis might help diverse interests realise existing and new cultural ecosystem services through an inclusive process of deliberation, decision-making and action.
More than wine - Cultural ecosystem services in English and Californian vineyard landscapes
Authors: Klara J. Winkler, Kimberly A. Nicholas
Abstract: Although ecosystem services research has increased, knowledge on cultural ecosystem services (CES) is limited. Vineyard landscapes provide not only grapes, but also CES. Using Q-Method, we assessed perceptions of wine producers and local residents of CES of vineyard landscapes in England, an emerging wine area, and in California, a more traditional wine area. We identified four English and four Californian perspectives on CES provided by vineyards. In both cases, wine producers and local residents perceived the CES provided differently. Californian wine producers placed higher value CES connected with wine production, while local residents preferred CES benefitting nature conservation or leisure activities. English wine producers were more positive about local vineyard landscapes than local residents. Furthermore, representatives of groups that benefit most from the currently dominating landscape highly valued heritage and symbolic services, and feared land use change. These findings emphasize the variety of perceptions on CES as experience- and context-dependent.
Trials, Tribulations and Transformations: Cultural Ecosystem Services and Pastoral Futures in Mongolia
Authors: Caroline Upton
Abstract: In contemporary Mongolia, ecosystem services thinking is becoming increasingly influential in decision-making around rural futures. In parallel with the growth of mining activities in rural spaces, pastoralism remains an important livelihood strategy, with nomadic identity and heritage retaining symbolic and cultural value, as well as practical resonance. Nonetheless, to date applications of ES-based approaches have placed overriding emphasis on economic values and valuation techniques and on provisioning services. Theoretical, methodological and policy-oriented engagement with cultural ES and with diverse values and valuation methods remains a major lacuna in contemporary resource governance and planning. This paper reports on a recently completed Darwin Initiative project at four sites across Mongolia, which begins to address these spaces and silences. Specifically, analyses of the nature, spatialities and values of (cultural) ES and their translation into an innovative rangeland PES scheme are presented, with reflections on attendant methodological challenges and innovations.
Comparing instrumental and deliberative approaches to the valuation of social values for cultural ecosystem services: Time for a new paradigm?
Authors: Christopher Raymond, Jasper Kenter, Tobias Plieninger, Nancy Turner, Karen Alexander
Abstract: Despite rapid advancements in the development of non-monetary techniques for the assessment of cultural ecosystem services, little research attention has been devoted to the evaluation of their underpinning paradigms. This paper presents two approaches for assessing social and cultural values for ecosystem services using an instrumental paradigm, involving an objective assessment of the distribution, type and/or intensity of values; and two approaches using a deliberative paradigm, involving the exploration of desired end states through group discussion. Each approach makes different assumptions about: the underlying rationale for values assessment; the process through which values are elicited; the type of representativeness sought, and; the degree of involvement of decision-makers. However, case examples demonstrate that the boundaries between instrumental and deliberative paradigms are often not concrete. To accommodate this fluidity, a third pragmatic paradigm is offered that integrates some of the qualities of both.
Informing biodiversity policy: the role of economic valuation, deliberative institutions and deliberative monetary valuation
Authors: Nele Lienhoop, Bartosz Bartkowski, Bernd Hansjürgens
Abstract: In the past years, monetary valuation of changes to biodiversity and ecosystem services has received increased attention in the scientific community and in the policy arena. Regardless of the abundance of valuation methods, there is a particular interest in obtaining monetary estimates via stated preference methods. While some experts regard these methods as useful means to recognise, demonstrate and integrate biodiversity concerns in policy design, others voice severe criticism and advocate the use of deliberative approaches. This paper outlines the rationale and characteristics of three valuation avenues: stated preference methods, deliberative institutions, and deliberative monetary valuation. We develop criteria that guide the selection of an appropriate valuation approach in different decision contexts and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of each approach against these criteria.
Identifying the supply of nature substitutes through hotspot mapping. Evidence from the Province of Antwerp, Belgium
Authors: Jeremy De Valck, Steven Broekx, Inge Liekens, Leo De Nocker, Liesbet Vranken
Abstract: In Flanders (Belgium), outdoor recreation in nature is becoming a popular activity in peri-urban areas. Because of the scarcity of natural areas, outdoor recreation is observed in various types of landscapes. In this paper, we combine survey information, GIS and statistics to: (1) better understand people’s recreational behaviour, (2) map the supply of nature sites suitable for outdoor recreational activities, and (3) understand how those sites can be substitutes one to another. The analysis focuses on the Belgian Province of Antwerp. The 1201 survey respondents show very informative behavioural patterns. From the 2336 recreational destinations pointed by the respondents, we observe different spatial effects. Spatial regressions are run to explain the characteristics of the recreational substitutes. Our results suggest the presence of context-specific distance-decay effects and corroborate the theory of cognitive distance. Regarding nature substitutes, we observe hotspots inside and outside the borders of the study area.
Incorporating cultural ecosystem services into marine spatial planning: The ICES approach of cultural significance of sea areas
Authors: Andreas Kannen, Kira Gee, Roland Cormier
Abstract: Marine or Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) is a normative approach for decisions on the competitive use of sea space based on several knowledge domains. From an ecosystem service perspective, MSP can be understood as an attempt to allocate space to the full range of ecosystem services provided by coasts and oceans. While it is common to focus on the ecological and economic values provided by the sea, it is less common to regard the sea as a place defined by cultural meanings even though these can be highly relevant for local acceptance and support of planning decisions. The presentation will introduce criteria for assessing the cultural significance of sea areas developed in a workshop of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). The criteria are linked to a risk management approach in order to highlight how cultural values could be integrated into decision making processes.
The ICES Approach: A case study from Devon, England
Authors: Rebecca Shellock, Stephen Fletcher, Emily Beaumont, Andreas Kannen, Kira Gee, Rob Giles
Abstract: There is increasing recognition of the importance of cultural values contained within marine and coastal environments. Despite this, cultural values have rarely been incorporated into Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). The ICES approach has addressed this and provides the first proposal of how cultural values could be integrated in practice. Current research has applied the theory to its first case study, the Dart Estuary (Devon, England). This presentation expands on the introduction by Kannen et al and will discuss the results of applying the cultural significance criteria to the Dart Estuary. This will include the challenges associated with operationalization and suggested refinements to the criteria. The usefulness of the criteria in supporting MSP and marine governance will be discussed in the context of local management, specifically in relation to the Dart Harbour and Navigation Authority and its ‘Forward Vision’.
Using subjective wellbeing to assess the cultural ecosystem services provided by the marine environment
Authors: Ros Bryce, Katherine Irvine, Jasper Kenter
Abstract: To recognise the extensive nature of cultural ecosystem services (CES), there is a need to develop non-monetary methods to measure their influence on human health and wellbeing so they can be better incorporated into decision-making. We developed a survey instrument to measure a diverse range of cultural benefits provided by marine areas at a national scale providing evidence of the cultural value of all sites proposed for protection as part of a UK network of marine conservation zones. By highlighting regional trends in types of cultural wellbeing and identifying biophysical characteristics of marine sites that influence overall cultural wellbeing, we provide evidence supporting 1) better integration of CES in the ecosystem service framework and 2) decisions about marine protection that consider socio-cultural values alongside economic and ecological factors.
Integrating hedonic and psychometric approaches for assessing effects of conservation, renewables and aquaculture on marine cultural ecosystem services
Authors: Jasper Kenter, Marcello Graziano, Elisavet Spanou, Katherine Irvine
Abstract: This study develops a novel approach that integrates monetary valuation of CES on the basis of hedonic pricing, and non-monetary valuation on the basis of a psychometric subjective well-being (SWB) instrument. The approach is developed using a case study that looks at the value of CES in the Scottish marine environment, and how it may be influenced by marine conservation, aquaculture and renewable energy developments. Hedonic approaches indirectly value the environment by looking at how different environmental features affect house prices. The psychometric approach reflects different CES in a set of indicators and the assumed structure of CES can then be tested empirically. Integration of hedonic and SWB approaches provides decision-makers and marine spatial planners with a combination of tools that provide a more comprehensive picture of how different types of development in the marine environment affect CES benefits.